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Ephesus Museum (Etnography Section)



Arasta: This was the bazaar made up of portico shops lining the walkway of the vaulted bazaar storage area that was typical of heavy trading areas of the former Turkish period. Merchants who were of the same trade and who were dependent on limited production sold their wares side by side here.

Degirmen (Mill): Primitive communities used natural resources to grind grain. From the Neolithic Age to about the 5th century BC grain was ground by hand between two stones. After the 5th century the upper stone was enlarged and grain was poured into the hole in the top to be ground. Later an arm was added for easier turning.

In the 2nd century animals like donkeys or horses were used in the Antalya area for grinding large amounts of grain. Water-driven mills were used as early as the 1st century BC.

Cici Barber: Until about fifty years ago there was a "Cici Barber" in almost every town in Anatolia, where there would be a master barber and an experienced apprentice along with a young apprentice. The master barber would do adult customers and the experienced apprentice would do young men boys. The young boy would sweep the place, offer customers coffee and tea and watch the master barber in his spare time.

Rose Water and Rose Oil Production: Rose shops making rose water and rose oil using traditional methods could not compete with larger commercial production centers and went out of business. Rose shops made rose water and rose oil by hand by distilling rose leaves. The month of May was the only month for production using fresh roses. Rose production began 3000 years BC with the Sumerians. Assyrians were the first to produce rose water and oil.

In Anatolia roses have been produced since the 12th and 13th centuries. In the14th century Ibn-i Batuta wrote in his travelogue of being offered rose water at Gülhisar, in the province of Burdur.

Europeans learned rose water and oil production from the Turks in the 17th century.

Amulet beads: Amulets, dating back to prehistoric times, are produced in the Aegean area at Kemalpasa and Görece. The glass is made in special ovens heating up to 1000° C. and colored, then shaped with an iron rod. Since blue is used against the Evil Eye, it is the most popular color.

Yatagan-Turkish Sword Making: The yataghan is a Turkish sword 50 to 100cm in length, with a slight curve toward the end. It was first used in the 14th century.

The body of the blade is made of steel and the butt of it is from animal horn. It is worn tucked into a thick waistband around the waist.

Since most of the production is done at Yatagan, the sword was named for the area.


Turkish baths come from their Roman counterparts. In that period baths were not simply used for bathing, but also for massage, sports and conversation. The bath had an important place in Roman culture that lasted until Byzantine times. Later, the bath was forgotten in Mediterranean and European regions, but revived by the Turks. During Selçuk and Ottoman periods many artistic and multi-purpose baths were built.

There are seven old Turkish baths within Selçuk County. One of these baths was named Saadet Hatun Bath. It is not clear just who Saadet Hatun was but it is thought he was one of the Aydinogullari Beys. This bath, dating from the 16th century, has many of the features of a traditional Turkish bath, with three divisions: cold, warm and hot. The bath was repaired in 1972 by the Ephesus Museum after standing in ruins until 1970. Near the bath is a caravanserai used as conference hall, and the Ayasuluk Mosque.

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